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精品推荐:粉彩过墙桃纹诗文杯

【藏品名称】:粉彩过墙桃纹诗文杯(大清乾隆年制)

[collection name]: pink wall crossing peach pattern poetry cup (made in the Qianlong year of the Qing Dynasty)

【藏品类别】:瓷器

[collection type]: porcelain

【藏品简介】:粉彩是景德镇御窑厂的陶工在珐琅彩的启发和影响下,引进铜胎珐琅不透明的白色彩料(玻璃白),并借鉴珐琅彩多色阶的配置技法创烧的一种釉上彩新品种。粉彩的烧造过程相当复杂,需在预先烧制好的白瓷上经过设计画样、勾线、配色、研色、打底、填色、洗染、烧制等多道工序才能完成,粉彩二次入窑的烧成温度一般在750℃左右。粉彩瓷创烧于康熙中晚期,当时精品很少。雍正时期,粉彩瓷在造型、绘画技法及装饰图案等方面已趋于成熟。由于粉彩改变了五彩平涂的绘画技法,给人“粉润柔和”之感,与康熙硬彩(五彩)相对,亦称“软彩”。《陶雅》云:“康熙彩硬,雍正彩软。软彩者粉彩也。彩之有粉者,红为淡红,绿为淡绿,故曰软也。

[collection introduction]: pastel is a new type of overglaze color created by the potters of Jingdezhen imperial kiln factory, inspired and influenced by enamel color, who introduced the opaque white color material (glass white) of copper based enamel and used the configuration technique of enamel color multi-color levels for reference. The firing process of pastel is quite complicated. It can only be completed through multiple processes such as design and drawing, line drawing, color matching, color research, priming, color filling, washing and dyeing, and firing on the pre fired white porcelain. The firing temperature of pastel in the kiln for the second time is generally about 750 ℃. Pastel porcelain was created and burned in the middle and late Kangxi period, when there were few fine products. During the Yongzheng period, pastel porcelain became mature in modeling, painting techniques and decorative patterns. As pastel has changed the painting technique of five color flat painting, it gives people a sense of "Pastel softness", which is also called "soft color" as opposed to the hard color (five colors) of Kangxi. Tao Ya said: "Kangxi's color is hard, Yongzheng's color is soft. The soft color is also pastel. If there is powder in the color, red is light red, and green is light green, so it is called soft.

 

乾隆帝统治清王朝长达60年,将“康乾盛世”的繁华局面推向了极致。景德镇的制瓷业亦盛极一时,集历代之大成者于一身。据《清档》记载,乾隆皇帝对瓷器有着特殊偏好,对粉彩瓷更是情有独钟,经常直接关注粉彩瓷的烧制。例如:制作前须呈送画样或木样,待皇帝亲自审核后才能送景德镇御窑厂烧制;有些器物的用途、造型、纹饰、款识以及配合纹饰的诗句等都须经过乾隆皇帝的审批;瓷器如果烧制不好,还要赔偿甚至受到严惩,如乾隆十三年(1748年)乾隆下旨:“唐英呈进瓷器仍系旧样,为何不照所发新样烧造进呈,将这次呈进瓷器钱粮不准报销,着依赔偿。”这种大背景下,粉彩瓷达到了其发展的顶峰。

Emperor Qianlong ruled the Qing Dynasty for 60 years, pushing the prosperity of the "prosperous period of Kangxi and Qianlong" to the extreme. The porcelain industry in Jingdezhen was also very prosperous, integrating the achievements of previous dynasties. According to records in the Qing Dynasty archives, Emperor Qianlong had a special preference for porcelain, especially for pastel porcelain. He often paid direct attention to the firing of pastel porcelain. For example, the painting or wood samples must be submitted before making, and can only be sent to Jingdezhen imperial kiln for firing after the emperor's personal review; The use, shape, decoration, style, and poems matching the decoration of some utensils had to be approved by Emperor Qianlong; If the porcelain is not fired well, it will have to be compensated or even severely punished. For example, in the 13th year of Qianlong (1748), Qianlong issued an order: "the porcelain presented by Tang Ying is still the old sample. Why not burn and present it according to the new sample. The money and grain presented this time will not be reimbursed, and compensation will be based on it." Under this background, pastel porcelain reached the peak of its development.

 

“过墙枝”也称过枝纹,过墙花纹,流行于清康熙、雍正、乾隆三代,多见于盘、碗、瓶等彩瓷上,过枝纹有“长治久安”的吉祥寓意。此粉彩过墙桃纹诗文杯,附带绿釉底座,周身施白釉,釉色洁白莹润,一棵折枝桃树自盘的底沿沿着盘壁蜿蜒绕过盘口,在杯身舒展开来,树上挂着内五外三共计9个硕大饱满的桃实,微风吹过,桃枝轻轻颤动,桃叶翻卷,桃花随风摇曳,鲜嫩、熟透的桃子让人垂涎欲滴。此杯利用粉彩绘画中的渲染技法体现画面的立体感,构图疏密有致,色彩淡雅娇丽,很好地表现了桃花的不同形态和桃叶的阴阳向背。

"Wall crossing branch" is also called "wall crossing branch pattern". It was popular in the three dynasties of Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty. It was mostly seen on colored porcelain such as plates, bowls and bottles. The "wall crossing branch pattern" has the auspicious meaning of "long-term stability". This pink wall crossing peach pattern poetry cup is attached with a green glaze base. The whole body is covered with white glaze. The glaze is white and lustrous. A broken branch peach tree winds around the opening along the wall from the bottom edge of the plate, and stretches out on the cup body. There are nine large and full peaches hanging on the tree, including the inner five and the outer three. The peach branches vibrate gently when the breeze blows, the peach leaves roll, and the peach flowers sway with the wind. The fresh and ripe peaches make people salivate. This cup uses the rendering techniques in pastel painting to reflect the three-dimensional sense of the picture. The composition is dense and elegant, and the color is elegant and beautiful. It well shows the different forms of peach flowers and the Yin and Yang of peach leaves.

 

仙桃图案在雍正、乾隆时期经常使用,成为装饰陶瓷器皿的主题纹饰,桃纹寓意“福寿双全”。由于雍正时期多画8个仙桃,乾隆时期喜欢绘9个桃子,因此行内有“雍八乾九”之说。此盘无论造型、釉色还是装饰题材都继承了乾隆朝遗风,具有极高的收藏价值和升值空间!

The peach pattern was often used in the Yongzheng and Qianlong periods, and became the theme decoration for decorative ceramic vessels. The peach pattern implied "both happiness and longevity". Since eight peaches were painted in Yongzheng period and nine peaches were painted in Qianlong period, there is a saying "Yong Ba Qian Jiu" in the industry. This plate has inherited the legacy of the Qianlong Dynasty in terms of shape, glaze color and decorative theme, and has high collection value and appreciation space!

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